What is CNC Machining?
CNC Stands for “Computer Numerical Control “. A computer program is designed in such way to control the movement of machine in order to manufacture desired parts or products.
Program defines its precision work and rotation on table to perform complex operation like Cutting ,Drilling , Shaping.
CNC Machine comes with different axis variant – 3-axis , 4-axis and 5-axis and 6-axis. These axis determines their ability to move and position the cutting tool or workpiece in multiple directions. The number of axes in a CNC machine defines its capability to perform certain types of operations and create complex shapes.
3-Axis CNC Machine operates in three axes: X, Y, and Z.
The X-axis represents horizontal movement from left to right, the Y-axis represents vertical movement from front to back, and the Z-axis represents vertical movement from top to bottom. E.g. Cosmos M70 | M80.
4-Axis CNC Machine – Like 3-Axis Machine it also has X-Y-Z axis movement plus it has one more axis that A-axis to include additional rotation. The A-axis allows the cutting workpiece to rotate around a vertical axis. Allowing for operations such as indexing and continuous machining on multiple sides of a workpiece.
5-Axis CNC Machine adds another rotary axis i.e B-axis. Like 4-Axis it also has X,Y,Z,A-axis and one more additional B-axis.
The B-axis allows for tilting of the cutting workpiece. 5-Axis enable machining at different angles and undercuts.
6-Axis CNC Machine: A 6-axis CNC machine includes all the axes of a 5-axis machine (X, Y, Z, A, and B) and adds a sixth rotary axis i.e. C-axis. C-axis provide additional rotational movement around Z-axis. This makes it more versatile and more precise while multi-sided machining.
What are the types of CNC Machine?
There are various types of CNC Machine available in the market and they have their own work functions and characteristics . Below few are explained:
Milling Machine : It is also known as a CNC mill- Its three-dimensional rotating functionality makes it very useful for cutting, drilling , Shaping a workpiece. It works on multiple axis and moves in both the direction – Vertical and Horizontal.
Lathe CNC Machine : A CNC lathe rotates a workpiece while cutting tools are used to shape it.
It is commonly used for cylindrical or round parts and can perform operations like turning, facing, grooving, and threading.
It also comes with manual operational form where it is operated manually by Lathe Operator.
Plasma Cutter : It uses a high-velocity jet of ionized gas to cut through electrically conductive materials such as steel, aluminum.
Laser Cutting Machine : It works on high power laser beam for cutting metals like Steel , Brass etc . It is commonly used in industries like automotive, and aerospace.
Grinding Machine : CNC grinding machine is used for grinding or removing the surface of workpiece . It works in rotational way with grinding wheel.
EDM [ Electrical Discharge Machining ] : As the name suggests it uses SPARK (Electrical Discharge) to erode the materials and create desired shape. Material uses for Spark is mostly Copper. It is used making complex shape , auto parts etc.
What are the advantages of a 5-axis CNC machine?
A 5-axis CNC machine offers several advantages over traditional 3-axis or 4-axis machines. In terms of performance and accuracy , 5-Axis Machine gives better result compare to 3 and 4-axis.
Few advantages are mentioned below:
- Increased machining capabilities.
- Enhanced precision and accuracy.
- Improved surface finish.
- Increased tool life and efficiency.
- Versatility and Cost Effective.
Overall , 5-axis CNC machine include increased machining capabilities, enhanced precision, reduced setup time, improved surface finish, increased tool life and efficiency, versatility, and potential cost savings. These benefits make 5-axis machining ideal for industries requiring complex and high-precision components.
What does a CNC machining center mainly do?
Below mentioned task/job work performed by CNC Machining Center :
1.Milling 2. Turning 3.Cutting and shaping 4. Tapping and threading
5.Drilling 6. Surface finishing 7.Automation 8. Precision Work.